There is no pattern to learn those adjectives with preposition, you only have to learn them as long as they appear but this list could help you
nice / kind / good / stupid / silly / intelligent / clever / sensible (1) / (im)polite / rude (2) /unreasonable (3) OF someone (to do something)
Thank you it was very nice / kind of you to help me. It's stupid of her to go out without a coat.
She has always been very nice / kind to me. Why are you so rude / unfriendly to Ann?
Why are you so angry about it? They were furious with me for not inviting them to my party.
I was pleased with the present you gave me. Were you disappointed with your examination results?
You get bored / fed up with doing the same thing every day.
Everyone was surprised by /at the news.
Are you excited about going on holiday next week?
Are you afraid of dogs?
I'm not ashamed of what I did.
I'm not very good at repairing things.
sorry ABOUT something (I'm sorry about the noise last night.)
sorry FOR doing something (I'm sorry for shouting at you yesterday.)
be / feel sorry FOR someone (I feel sorry for George.)
famous FOR something (Florence is famous for its art treasures.)
responsible (17) FOR something (Who was responsible for this noise last night?)
interested IN something (Are you interested in art?)
fond (18) OF something / someone (Mary is fond of animals.)
full OF something (The letter was full of mistakes.)
short OF (19) something (I'm a bit short of money.)
keen ON (20) something (We stayed at home because Mary wasn't very keen on going out in the rain.)
similar TO (21) something (Your writing is similar to mine.)
crowded WITH (22) (people,...) (The city was crowded with tourists.)
Exercise one Exercise two Exercise three